The earliest Eurasian civilisation developed in the floodplains of such great rivers like Danube, Nile, Tigris, Euphrates, Indus.
Widely separated communities adapted to their changing environment, exploring new technology, not always with the same degree of success, as human ingenuity adapted itself to local circumstances.
Farming first developed in Anatolia, where cattle and sheep were domesticated and seeds of native cereals and peas cultivated as Daley as 9 millennium BC. At Jericho in Palestine, which claims the longest period of habitation in the world, a quite large defended village has been built as early as 7000 BC. While further north, Jarmo in Kurdistan was flourishing at an altitude of strong 1000 mts.
The most extended of the new cultures emerged in and sound Danube basin about 6000 BC. Bringing with them wheat, and barley seeds, peas, and domesticated livestock, the people of what is called is generally known as Old Europe.
One Danubian community , the Cucuteni, produced what could be a “parliament of women ” a 21 small but majestic female terracotta figure stated in a circle. From the same region two very different monochrome figurines, a stated man with his head in his hands- a prototype ‘Thinker‘ and a woman, head raised to the sky and hands poised on one knee, display a contemplative sensibility that free later art works can surpass….
Old Europe was one of the first societies to develop a written language, although the evidence is slight-someday tablets dated 4000 BC. with pictographic symbols arranged in what appears to be a meaningful order. The Danubian were also among the first metallurgists.
However, the old Europe’s slow decline, from 4300BC. Is unclear. A brisk cold spell, with more frequent flooding and soil erosion might jab be depressed the economy, but there were certainly some violence from raiders who began crossing from the steppes over the rivers, the first of those were a ‘barbarians‘ ( from where we got the term barbaric similar to vandals in the Rome from where we got the term vandalism)
Having said that, I would say that no one society could rightly claim to be the prime originator of civilisation, for all contributed to improving the human condition ( this crux is to be understood clearly because this has been present in many philosophy that spread terrorism).
From the western side, let’s move on to 6000 miles far in the east, the other side of the world, the inhabitants of Japan who had already produced what we may well be known as world’s first pottery, and are living in substantial villages. Similarly, the Bolan Pass, on the hill country between Pakistan and Afghanistan, the residents of Mehrgarh had established a mixed farming system. . there small mud brick villages housed people animal provided storage for their cultivated grain and dried dates. However, their technology did not extend to ceramics.
But the best documented & perhaps the most influential advances were made in the Asian Fertile Crescent. This extended from Persian gulf to the Mediterranean following the course of twin rivers, Tigris and Euphrates ( the greatest trade route of the ancient world).
If civilization had a single birthplace then I can say that it can be Mesopotamia. Literature, mathematics, accountancy, astronomy architecture and brewing all made the appearances here, and at much the same time, their records preserved on dried classy tablets….
P.S. Hopefully I have given a basic intro before going to early empires. Keeping it simple and interesting.. This series of history is just a glimpse of what we have thought once while preparing for exam that, we will write a book comprising of all important facts … Don’t worry, I am doing my bit in your loving memories….
Loads of love and respect as always….